100 + MCQs on Soil Science (Answers and Explanation)

100 + MCQs on Soil Science (with Answers and Explanation)
1.जमिनीच्या पृष्ठभागावरुन जमिनीमध्ये खालच्या दिशेने जाणाऱ्या पाणी प्रवाहास

The downward entry or movement of water from the surface into the soil is termed


(1) गळणे (Permeability)

(2) झिरपणे (Percolation)

(3) जिरणे/मुरणे (Infiltration)

(4) यापैकी एकही नाही (None of the above)

Ans. 3

2._____हा मृदा तयार होण्याच्या प्रक्रियेतील अतिशय क्रियाशील घटक आहे.
______is the most important active factor in Soil Formation (MPSC MAINS 2019)

(1) मृदेचा मूळ घटक (Parent material)(2) जमिनीचा ऊंचसखलपणा (Topography of the land)

(3) हवामान (Climate)

(4) वेळ (कालावधी) (Time)

Ans. 3

3.आय. सी. ए. आर. भारतीय मृदा विज्ञान संस्था
ICAR – Indian Institute of Soil Science is located at. (MPSC MAINS 2019)

(1) कानपूर (Kanpur)

(2) लखनऊ (Lucknow)

(3) जयपुर (Jaipur)

(4) भोपाल (Bhopal)

Ans. 4

4. Indian institute of soil & water conservation is situated at

(1) Kanpur in Uttar pradesh

(2)Lucknow in Uttar pradesh

(3) Jaipur in Rajastan

(4) Dehradun in the state of uttarakhand.

Ans. 4

5.Central soil salinity research institute is situated at

(1) Karnal in Haryana

(2) Gurugram in Himachal pradesh

(3) Delhi

(4) Nagpur in Maharashtra

Ans. 1

6. What is/are the types of Soil Collides?

1. Layer silicate clays
2. Iron and alumium oxide clays (Sesquioxide clays)
3. Allophane and assosiated amorphous clays
4. Humus

A. Only 1

B. 1 and 2

C. 2, 3 and 4

D. All of the above

Ans. D

7. According to Arnon there are ____ essential nutrients for plants.





Ans. 3

8. Currently how many essential nutrients are there for the plant growth?





Ans. 3 (Ni-Nickle got added in the list in 1987)

9.जमिनीमध्ये वाळू, गाळ आणि चिकणमातीची तुलनात्मक दृष्ट्या असलेल्या प्रमाणास
The relative proportion of soil particles viz sand, silt and clay is known as

(1) जमिनीची कण रचना (Soil structure)

(2) जमिनीचे वर्गीकरण (Soil Classification)

(3) जमिनीचा पोत (Soil Texture)

(4) जमिनीचे (मातीचे) कण (Soil Senerates)

Ans. 3

10. What is universal soil loss equation?






10. What is soil forming equation according to Jenny?





Ans. 4

11. How many soil types are there in india according to ICAR

(1). 5

(2)  6

(3) .7

(4) .8

Ans. 2

12. In context of soil science USLE is stands for?

(1). Universal Soil Loss Equation

(2). Ultimate Soil Loss Equation

(3). United Soil Loss Equation

(4). Universal Soil Lost Exchange

Ans. 1

13. Adjusted Sodium Adsorption Ratio (SAR) of normal water is (MPSC 2019)
(1) 10-20

(2) 30-40

(3) > 10


14. The phenomenon slickenside found in which soil

(A) Inceptisol

(B) Vertisol

(C) Gelisol

(D) Spodosol

Ans. B

15. Which organic fraction not soluble in both acid and alkali

(A) Fulvic

(B) Humic

(C) Humin

(D) All of the above

Ans. C

16. In munsell colour chart hue 10 represents as ______

(A) Red

(B) Black

(C) Grey

(D) Yellow

Ans. D

17. pF scale for Field capacity is _____

(A) 2

(B) 2.5

(C) 3.5

(D) 4.5

Ans. B

18. Available water held between

(A) Saturation to wilting point

(B) Field capacity to hygroscopic coefficient

(C) Only field capacity

(D) Field capacity to wilting point

Ans. D

19. Soil colloidal particle shows the phenomena

(A) Plasticity

(B) Adhesion and cohesion

(C) Flocculation

(D) All of the above

Ans. D

20. The central cation on silica tetrahedron is _____

(A) Al3+

(B) Si4+

(C) Fe2+

(D) None of the above

Ans. B

21. Which plant is used for indication of permanent wilting point?

(A) Safflower

(B) Sunflower

(C) Marigold

(D) Both A and C

Ans. B

22. Mica is a____ type of clay mineral

(A) 1:1

(B) 2:1

(C) 2:1:1

(D) None of the above

Ans. B

23. Hydrogen bond found in which of the follwoing clay mineral

(A) Kaolinite

(B) Montmorillonite

(C) Vermiculite

(D) Beidelite

Ans. A

24. Base saturation in lateritic soil

(A) < 40 %

(B) > 40%

(C) < 20%

(D) > 20%

Ans. B

25. Immobilization of sulphur occur in soil when C:S ratio is _____

(A) < 300:1

(B) > 300:1

(C) > 400:1

(D) > 200:1

Ans. C

26. Denitrification is a process of ______

(A) Oxidation

(B) Reduction

(C) Hydration

(D) Carbonation

Ans. B

Explation: Dinitrification is the reduction of soil nitates to the nitrogen
gases like NO,N2O,N2

27. Microorganism involve in conversion from nitrite(NO2-) to nitrate(NO3-)

(A) Nitrosomonas

(B) Nitrobactor

(C) Pseudomonas

(D) Bacillus

Ans. B

Explanation:Bacteria that converts Ammonia to nitrites: NitroSOmonas, NitroSOcoccus, NitroSOlobus, NitroSOspira
Bacteria that converts Nitrites to Nitrates : Nitrobactor, Nitrospina and Nitrococcus

28. What is the ratio of carbon and nitrogen in compost? (Mpsc Mains 2012)

(A) 10:1

(B) 20:1

(C) 30:1

(D) 60:1

Ans. C

29. To avoid soil erosion in mountainous region generally Bench terracing is done upto_____slope. (MPSC Mains 2013)

(A) 16 to 33%

(B) >10%

(C) 3 to 5%

(D) 45 to 50%

Ans. A

30. N content in thiourea is _________

(A) 46%

(B) 36.8%

(C) 22.5%

(D) 33%

Ans. B

31. The K2O content in Illite varied between

(A) 6 to 10%

(B) 2 to 4%

(C) 10 to 15%

(D) 33%

Ans. A

32. The microorganism lies below < 10°C is called _______

(A) Psychrophiles

(B) Mesophiles

(C) Thermophiles

(D) None of the above

Ans. A

33. Thermophiles organism lies in temperature

(A) > 45°C

(B) > 25°C

(C) < 45°C

(D) < 25°C

Ans. A

34. Optimum temperature for mesophile

(A) 10-20°C

(B) 20-40°C

(C) 40-60°C

(D) 15-20°C

Ans. B

35. Which organism derive their energy from oxidation of complex organic compound

(A) Heterotrophs

(B) Autotrophs

(C) Chemotrophs

(D) Lithotrophs

Ans. A

36. Organism utilize carbon from CO2 for their cellular synthesis

(A) Hetrotrophs

(B) Chemotrophs

(C) Autotrophs

(D) None of the above

Ans. C

37. Most of the soil organism is _____

(A) Psychrophiles

(B) Mesophiles

(C) Thermophiles

(D) All of the above

Ans. B

38. Optimum growth of bacteria in soil occurs when the pH of the soil is

(A) Acidic

(B) Alkali

(C) Neutral to slightly alkaline

(D) Slightly acidic to neutral

Ans. C

39. Fungi growth is optimum in pH between

(A) 2.5-4.5

(B) 4.5-6.5

(C) 6.5-7.5

(D) 7.5-8.5

Ans. B

40. Actinomycetes prefer which condition for their growth

(A) Slightly alkaline

(B) Alkali

(C) Acidic

(D) Neutral

Ans. A

41. Aroma of earthy smell in first shower of monsoon is due to _____

(A) Actinomycetes

(B) Bacteria

(C) Fungi

(D) None of the above

Ans. A

42. Which genera of bacteria found maximum in soil?

(A) Azotobacter

(B) Pseudomonas

(C) Bacillus

(D) All of the above

Ans. C

43. Rhizobium is an _____ organism

(A) Hetrotrophs anaerobic

(B) Heterotrophs aerobic

(C) Autotrophs anaerobic

(D) Autotrophs aerobic

Ans. B

44. Which nutrient influence the nodule formation and nitrogen fixation in soil?

(A) pH

(B) N


(D) All of the above

Ans. D

45. Nitrification process ceases at pH

(A) < 5

(B) < 6

(C) < 4

(D) < 7

Ans. A

46. Denitrification mostly takes place in _____ condition.

(A) Aerobic

(B) Anaerobic

(C) Both

(D) None of the above

Ans. B

47. The Nitrification process is rapid in _____ season

(A) Winter

(B) Rainy

(C) Summer

(D) All of the above

Ans. C

48. The peak microbial population was observed in soil generally after addition of residue

(A) 3-4 week

(B) 2-3 week

(C) 3-4 days

(D) 1-2 week

Ans. D

49. For mineralization of P optimum ratio of C:N:P should be _____

(A) 100:10:1

(B) 50:10:1

(C) 80:10:1

(D) 30:10:1

Ans. A

50. Ammonia volatilization is purely process of _____

(A) Physical

(B) Chemical

(C) Biological

(D) None of the above

Ans. B

51. Which element suppressed Downey mildew of pear millets?

(A) Chloride

(B) Fluoride

(C) Bromide

(D) Lithium

Ans. A

52. Improper development of wheat inflorescence is due to deficiency of _____

(A) Molybdenum

(B) Boron

(C) Calcium

(D) Magnesium

Ans. B

53. Organic matter obtained

(A) OC x 1.724

(B) OC x 2.24

(C) OC x 1.55

(D) OC x 1.64

Ans. A

54. Saturated hydraulic conductivity is measured by _____

(A) Pycnometer

(B) Tensiometer

(C) Amoozemeter

(D) Hydrometer

Ans. C

55. Arrenge the following in the decreasing order according to their Hydraulic conductivity?

(A) K – soil > Ca – soil > Na – soil

(B) Na – soil > K – soil > Ca – soil

(C) Ca – soil < K – soil < Na – soil

(D) Ca – soil > K – soil > Na – soil

Ans. D

56. Which chemical compound is used for improve soil aeration, infiltration and water holding capacity of soil

(A) Jalshakti

(B) Fentachlore

(C) Hydrotech

(D) None of the above

Ans. A

57. Reddish colour in muriate of potash is due to _____

(A) KCl

(B) Colour reagent

(C) Impurities

(D) All of the above

Ans. C

58. Feldspars is primary mineral that occurs pre-dominantly in ________

(A) Igneous rock

(B) Sedimentary rock

(C) Metamorphic rocks

(D) All of the above

Ans. A

59. CO2 content in rainwater is _______

(A) 0.35%

(B) 0.45%

(C) 0.25%

(D) 0.15%

Ans. B

60. In which point resistant to wind erosion takes place?

(A) Permanent wilting point

(B) Hygroscopic point

(C) Field capacity

(D) None of the above

Ans. A

61. Bedrock is absent in which soil?

(A) Black soil

(B) Red soil

(C) Alluvial soil

(D) Forest soil

Ans. C

62. The most popular fertilizer for foliar application.?

(A) potassium

(B) Phosphate

(C) Ammonium

(D) Urea

Ans. D

63. Which of the following organism is responsible for decomposition of organic matter.?

(A) Microorganism

(B) Algae

(C) Bacteria

(D) Fungi

Ans. A

64. Which nutrients are found deficient in Black soil.?

(A) Lime

(B) Potash

(C) Iron

(D) Nitrogen

Ans. D

65. Aroma of earthy smell in first shower of mansoon due to.?

(A) Actinomycetes

(B) Fungi

(C) Bacteria

(D) None of the above

Ans. A

66. Saline soil also known as _____

(A) Solonchalk

(B) Solonetz

(C) Sodochalk

(D) None of the above

Ans. A

67. Kari is the local name of _____

(A) Acid soil

(B) Saline soil

(C) Acid sulfate soil

(D) Alkali soil

Ans. C

68. The honey-comb structure found in _____

(A) Alluvial soil

(B) Black soil

(C) Saline soil

(D) Laterite soil

Ans. D

69. Which soil occur mainly a soil crust problem?

(A) Sandy soil

(B) Silty clay loam

(C) Loam soil

(D) Clay soil

Ans. B

70. Red colour of soil is due to _____

(A) Hematite

(B) Geothite

(C) Glauconite

(D) Maghemite

Ans. A

71. Black colour of soil is due to _____

(A) Titaniferous magnetite

(B) Geothite

(C) Glauconite

(D) Organic matter

Ans. A

72. Total soil order found in world?

(A) 9

(B) 10

(C) 11

(D) 12

Ans. D

73. Flow of nitrogen in soil mainly due to _____

(A) Mass flow

(B) Diffusion

(C) Interception

(D) None of the above

Ans A

74. Micronutrient flow is mainly a _____ process in soil

(A) Mass flow

(B) Diffusion

(C) Interception

(D) None of the above

Ans. B

75. When organic matter added into the soil effect on bulk density

(A) Increased

(B) No effect

(C) Decreased

(D) Both A and C

Ans. C

76. Which factor is more responsible for black colour in Vertisol soil?

(A) Hematite

(B) Titaniferous magnetite

(C) Geotite

(D) Organic matter

Ans. B

77. Which factor is responsible for red colour in Entisol soil?

(A) Hematite

(B) Geotite

(C) Maghemite

(D) Gibbsite

Ans. A

78. Yellow colour appear due to hydration of hematite found in which soil?

(A) Entisol

(B) Alfisol

(C) Inceptisol

(D) Vertisol

Ans. C

79. Which one is lower category for classification of soil?

(A) Soil order

(B) Family

(C) Soil series

(D) None of the above

Ans. C

80. Which clay mineral is responsible for cracking in black soil?

(A) Kaolinite

(B) Illite

(C) Vermiculite

(D) Montmorillonite

Ans. D

81. pH meter measures

(A) H ions activity

(B) H ions concentration

(C) Al ions

(D) All of the above

Ans. A

82. EC (electrical conductivity) meter measures

(A) Total salts in irrigation water

(B) Soluble salts in irrigation water

(C) Both

(D) None of the above

Ans. B

83. The unit used for the measurement of electrical conductivity is _____

(A) dS/m

(B) uS/cm

(C) mg/m

(D) Both A and B

Ans. D

84. Olsen method is used for phosphorus estimation of which type of soil?

(A) Acidic soil

(B) Neutral to alkali soil

(C) Saline soil

(D) All of the above

Ans. B

85. Which method used for determination of available phosphorus in acid soil

(A) Bray method

(B) Olsen method

(C) Walkley and Black method

(D) Jackson method

Ans. A

86. KMnO4 (potassium permanganate) is used for __________

(A) Available nitrogen

(B) Organic carbon

(C) Available phosphorus

(D) Available potassium

Ans. A

87. Which instrument is used for the estimation of potash (K)

(A) Spectrophotometer

(B) Flamephotometer

(C) Colorimeter

(D) Atomic absorption

Ans. B

88. Spectrophotometer is used for determination of _____

(A) N

(B) P

(C) K

(D) All of the above

Ans. B

89. Hue denotes

(A) Dominant spectrum

(B) Lightness or brightness

(C) Purity

(D) Intensity

Ans. A

90. Which fertilizer produce acidity in soil?

(A) Ammonium sulphate

(B) Sodium nitrate

(C) Calcium ammonium nitrate

(D) Calcium nitrate

Ans. A

91. Maximum Nitrogen content found which in N fertilizer?

(A) Urea

(B) Anhydrous ammonia

(C) Sodium nitrate

(D) Ammonium sulphate

Ans. B

92. Rock phosphate has P2O5

(A) 10-20%

(B) 20-40%

(C) 30-50 %

(D) 20-30%

Ans. B

93. Exfoliation is what type of Weathering type?
(State services 2014)
(A) Chemical
(B) Physical
(C) Biological
(D) None of the Above.
Ans. B
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